From: Performance of penalized maximum likelihood in estimation of genetic covariances matrices
Cov.^{1} | Strategy^{2} | Penalty | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\lambda}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\lambda}}^{\ell}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\lambda}}^{\ell 2}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\beta}}^{\mathit{a}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\beta}}^{\mathit{b}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\beta}}^{\mathit{c}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathbf{\Sigma}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathbf{\Sigma}}^{2}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\rho}}$ | ${\mathcal{P}}_{\mathit{\rho}}^{2}$ | ||
5 traits | |||||||||||
Σ _{ G } | V∞ | 35.8 | 71.3 | 72.9 | 66.7 | 71.4 | 67.9 | 70.6 | 70.0 | 72.0 | 72.2 |
CV3 | 23.1 | 55.9 | 60.7 | 59.2 | 58.1 | 61.1 | 54.9 | 52.9 | 54.4 | 56.9 | |
L5% | 41.3 | 68.3 | 70.2 | 67.6 | 69.5 | 69.3 | 64.1 | 66.7 | 70.5 | 71.5 | |
Σ _{ E } | V∞ | 57.9 | 43.4 | 61.6 | 59.3 | 60.9 | 59.7 | 13.3 | 54.2 | 37.3 | 60.0 |
CV3 | 14.1 | 26.7 | 44.3 | 38.7 | 36.0 | 39.6 | 10.7 | 43.0 | 22.8 | 40.9 | |
L5% | 43.6 | 35.0 | 55.9 | 54.2 | 54.1 | 54.0 | 7.2 | 51.4 | 33.2 | 55.7 | |
Σ _{ P } | V∞ | 1.1 | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.3 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.7 | 2.2 | 2.4 |
CV3 | -0.4 | 0.4 | 0.5 | 0.3 | 0.1 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 0.1 | 0.4 | 0.8 | |
L5% | -0.7 | 0.7 | 0.8 | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.3 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.2 | |
9 traits | |||||||||||
Σ _{ G } | V∞ | 48.4 | 64.8 | 68.4 | 65.3 | 68.9 | 66.7 | 64.0 | 62.8 | 71.3 | 73.3 |
L5% | 24.1 | 67.5 | 67.7 | 65.4 | 66.5 | 66.4 | 68.0 | 67.7 | 69.5 | 69.4 | |
Σ _{ E } | V∞ | 62.9 | 60.5 | 68.8 | 67.8 | 67.3 | 68.3 | 10.4 | 61.1 | 57.9 | 70.2 |
L5% | 63.0 | 16.4 | 59.3 | 60.9 | 62.6 | 61.7 | 9.9 | 47.4 | 17.2 | 56.3 | |
Σ _{ P } | V∞ | 1.3 | 1.9 | 1.9 | 2.0 | 1.8 | 2.0 | 1.2 | 1.7 | 2.5 | 3.0 |
L5% | 1.2 | 0.5 | 1.1 | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.2 | 0.6 | 0.7 | 1.1 | 1.2 |