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Table 2 Mean percentage reduction in average loss for the genetic covariance matrix together with the average proportion of replicates for which penalisation increased loss

From: Performance of penalized maximum likelihood in estimation of genetic covariances matrices

Penalty % reduction in average loss % replicates with increased loss
  V∞ V1 CV3 CV5 L5% V∞ V1 CV3 CV5 L5%
P λ 71.3 60.6 55.9 50.4 68.3 7.3 8.7 14.6 14.6 12.0
P λ 2 72.9 63.7 60.7 58.1 70.2 6.5 7.5 13.0 13.2 10.0
P β b 71.4 62.9 58.1 53.9 69.5 6.4 7.5 13.6 14.0 9.8
P Σ 70.6 60.6 54.9 52.7 64.1 4.6 8.9 15.4 15.5 15.6
P ρ 72.0 62.9 54.4 51.6 70.5 4.0 7.1 9.9 10.2 9.2
  1. Data for q = 5 traits and s = 100 sire families; using different penalties and strategies to determine the tuning factor (V∞: using population values, V1: sampling one additional data set, CV3 and CV5: 3- and 5- fold cross-validation, and L5%: limiting the change in log likelihood)