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Table 3 Mean relative bias (in %) in estimates of the i-th canonical eigenvalue and of the mean eigenvalue ( λ ¯ ) , and mean absolute bias in estimates of the i-th heritability (×100).

From: Performance of penalized maximum likelihood in estimation of genetic covariances matrices

Penalty
q 1 i None P λ P λ P λ 2 P β a P β b P β c P Σ P Σ 2 P ρ P ρ 2
Canonical eigenvalues
5 λ ̄ 2.3 -5.4 6.6 2.1 3.4 -1.2 1.0 11.2 10.9 4.7 2.3
  1 9.5 -12.9 -3.7 -9.6 -8.9 -12.9 -11.5 8.1 3.2 1.3 -3.0
  2 26.5 16.1 16.3 16.1 24.7 19.5 19.5 24.9 26.3 16.2 15.5
  4 -19.4 9.1 57.7 48.3 38.8 31.0 39.4 39.1 47.0 37.3 37.1
  5 -78.8 -38.1 101.3 81.6 36.1 26.6 52.2 75.3 88.6 57.2 56.7
  av.2 30.2 19.6 41.6 36.4 28.3 23.4 30.3 34.4 38.8 26.6 26.5
9 λ ̄ 4.4 -9.9 9.5 3.2 11.8 0.8 7.2 19.7 18.2 6.3 2.5
  1 22.4 -22.4 -3.8 -13.7 -6.9 -18.5 -12.7 21.6 8.8 2.9 -4.2
  2 16.6 -17.5 -6.8 -10.0 0.5 -11.4 -6.2 16.1 11.0 -0.7 -3.1
  8 -85.6 -16.4 139.4 111.7 80.8 77.8 104.4 87.5 110.1 86.5 82.2
  9 -97.9 -35.0 270.1 217.5 133.2 134.0 190.5 184.1 217.0 133.4 131.7
  av. 39.9 16.6 68.4 57.3 48.8 45.1 56.9 54.0 61.9 40.0 39.1
Heritabilities
5 1 -1.0 -9.1 -4.4 -7.8 -6.9 -8.3 -7.9 -0.7 -2.9 -1.9 -3.7
  2 0.6 -3.4 0.0 -1.7 -1.1 -2.0 -1.7 2.2 1.4 -0.2 -1.4
  4 0.9 0.2 3.2 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.1 4.1 4.3 1.0 0.5
  5 1.1 1.2 4.6 3.6 3.7 3.2 3.4 5.1 5.4 1.6 1.3
  av. 0.8 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.4 1.0 1.4
9 1 -0.5 -15.5 -6.8 -11.3 -7.6 -12.3 -10.0 0.9 -3.6 -2.0 -5.4
  2 -0.1 -11.7 -4.8 -7.8 -4.5 -8.5 -6.6 1.9 -1.3 -1.8 -4.9
  8 2.2 2.5 7.5 6.0 7.5 5.7 6.8 8.2 8.6 2.9 2.2
  9 2.5 3.5 8.6 7.2 8.4 6.9 7.9 9.1 9.6 3.5 2.9
  av. 1.3 5.4 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.4 5.1 1.9 2.5
  1. Data for s = 100 sire families; using different penalties (see text for notation) and population values to determine the tuning factor (strategy V∞)
  2. 1Number of traits
  3. 2Average of all q absolute values