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Table 2 Estimates of inbreeding depression for all traits and total inbreeding measures, expressed as the change in expected phenotype per 1% increase in inbreeding

From: Inbreeding depression due to recent and ancient inbreeding in Dutch Holstein–Friesian dairy cattle

Trait \(\varvec{F}_{{\varvec{PED}}}\) \(\varvec{F}_{{\varvec{ROH}}}\) \(\varvec{F}_{{\varvec{GRM}}}\)
Estimate SE Estimate SE Estimate SE
MY − 37.95** 3.66 − 36.25** 2.35 − 48.07** 2.83
FY − 1.54** 0.14 − 1.34** 0.09 − 1.60** 0.11
PY − 1.27** 0.11 − 1.20** 0.07 − 1.55** 0.09
CI 0.46* 0.23 0.48** 0.15 0.62** 0.18
ICF 0.16 0.09 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.07
IFL 0.13 0.19 0.27* 0.12 0.42** 0.15
CR − 0.31* 0.12 − 0.27** 0.08 − 0.36** 0.09
SCS150 0.58 0.44 0.30 0.28 0.44 0.34
SCS400 0.86* 0.43 0.86** 0.28 1.15** 0.33
  1. MY: 305-day milk yield (kg); FY: 305-day fat yield (kg); PY: 305-day protein yield (kg); CI: calving interval (days); ICF: interval calving to first insemination (days); IFL: interval first to last insemination (days); CR: conception rate (%); SCS150 somatic cell score day 5 to 150 (1000 + 100*[log2 of cells/mL]); SCS400: somatic cell score day 151 to 400 (1000 + 100*[log2 of cells/mL])
  2. \(F_{PED}\): pedigree inbreeding based on all generations; \(F_{ROH}\): inbreeding based on all regions of homozygosity; \(F_{GRM}\): inbreeding based on genomic relationship matrix computed with allele frequencies of 0.5
  3. Significance for non-nullity is indicated by stars (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01)